Ultrasound is the most widely used technique for inspecting composite structures, and Pierrepont Analysis have a large variety of appropriate ultrasonics instruments. In the aerospace industry and in mast manufacturing, where composites are generally made using autoclaves, materials have very low attenuation so higher frequency signals can be used to detect anomalies. In the marine industry, where large, complex structures are built without autoclaves, the attenuation can be higher, so a lower frequency of ultrasound is often required.
An A-scan produces a graph representing the ultrasound signal's journey through a material. It shows the sound travel-time plotted along the bottom (baseline) of the display and signal (echo) amplitude plotted vertically.
Although this is the most basic form of ultrasound testing, when used in conjunction with B and C scans, its round beam can be highly effective in sizing and evaluating anomalies.
We use portable Phased Array ultrasound equipment for full encoded B and C scan inspections.
An array transducer is one that contains a number of separate elements in a single housing, and phasing refers to how those elements are sequentially pulsed. A phased array system is normally based around a specialised ultrasonic transducer that contains many individual elements (typically from 16 to 256) that can be pulsed separately in a programmed pattern. Their shape may be square, rectangular, or round, and test frequencies are most commonly in the range from 1 to 10 MHz
Using either array probes or single crystal transducers connected to encoding systems, large area C-scans and long and short cross sectional (X-Y) B scans can be recorded on most materials.
This allows for quick evaluation of material quality and accurate identification, sizing and evaluation of anomalies.
We have a wide range array probes that enable us to inspect materials of different thicknesses.
B-scans produce cross-sectional or side views of a part being inspected. Using single crystal transducers or a phased array probe connected to encoding systems, long and short cross sectional (X-Y) B scans can be recorded on most materials.
This allows for quick evaluation of material quality, bond line monitoring and accurate identification, sizing and evaluation of anomalies.
The image includes a short cross sectional B-scan (image from across the array probe) and a long cross sectional B-scan (image from a probe attached to an encoder).
C-scans produce a two dimensional view of ultrasonic amplitude or time/depth data displayed as a top view of a test piece (see image below). Images of back wall echo, defects and bond lines can easily be generated.
The other image is A, B and C-scan data recorded from a dagger board. This method provides highly detailed maps and cross-sections of composites, allowing for in-depth analysis and evaluation of the material being tested.